To see the world in a grain of sand and to see heaven in a wild flower.
Hold infinity in the palm of your hand and forever in an hour. - William Blake
Current position: Associate Professor in Physics
Institution Address: Department
Where I come from:
University studies and Degrees Obtained
My Research Interests:
Quantum Degenerate Gases (Coldest stuff in the Universe)!!
In 1924, physicists Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose predicted that if one were to cool a sample of bosons - particles with integer quantum spin, such as rubidium and cesium atoms - down past a certain critical temperature, all of the particles in the sample would "fall" into the lowest possible energy level. Once there, quantum mechanics states that since all the particles would have the same energy, each particle would behave exactly like all the others. The result, Bose and Einstein argued, would be an entirely new state of matter, a "superatom" as different from ordinary gases as a solid is from a liquid, or a liquid from a gas.
Four months after the announcement
Such discoveries hold great promise not only for BEC's "native" field of atomic, molecular, and optical physics, but also for astrophysics and possibly other fields as well. In the future, scientists may use Bose-Einstein condensates to build large-scale, stable atom lasers, or "bosers": devices that produces a coherent beam of matter similar to the way a laser produces a coherent beam of light. Lasers have revolutionized both basic research and applied technology since they were invented in the 1960's, and based on preliminary studies, some researchers argue that the same could prove true for bosers. For the coldest stuff in the universe, the future looks remarkably hot.
What is Bose Einstein Condensation?
Quantum optical properties of ultracold atoms in optical lattices and in optical cavities
Current Research Interest:
Other Research Interest: Astrobiology: The origin, evolution of life in the Universe.
research fellowship of the University Grants Commission,
- Former Associate of the following research institutes:
2. Jawaharlal Nehru center for advanced scientific research, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.
of Mathematical Sciences,
- Awarded the ICTP-TRIL fellowship at University of Pisa, Italy (February 2003-2004).
- Awarded the special research grant of the German Science Foundation at the University of Essen, Germany (2005).
- Awarded the short term fellowship of DAAD, Germany (2006).
- Awarded the Endeavour Research Fellowship of the Australian Government for a 6 month research position at the Nonlinear Physics Center, Australian National University (2007), Group of Professor Yuri Kivshar..
15 months Guest Scientist position at the Max Planck Institute for Physics of
- Awarded the short term fellowship of DAAD, Germany (2011).
Some Links on Bose-Einstein Condensation:
1. Professor Ennio Arimondo (University of Pisa, Italy).
2. Dr. Monika Pietrzyk and Dr. Demircan Ayhan ( Weierstrass Institute, Berlin, Germany).
3. Professor Julian Chela-Flores (ICTP, Trieste, Italy).
4. Dr. M-C Chung, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
5. Dr. Stefan Skupin, Max-Planck Institute-PKS, Dresden, Germany.
6. Professor Man Mohan, University of Delhi, India.
7. Dr. Suman Dudeja, ARSD College, University of Delhi, India.
8. Dr. P. Muruganandam, Bharathidasan University,Tiruchipalli, India.
9. Prof. Axel Pelster, Freie University, Germany.
1. Jawaharlal Nehru University , New Delhi, India, 1997.
2. International Conference on Ultrasonics, NPL, New Delhi, India, 1999.
3. Seventh Trieste Conference on Chemical Evolution, Trieste, Italy, 2003.
4. Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Italy, 2004.
5. Venkateshwara College, University of Delhi, India, 2004.
6. Group talk at the University of Essen-Duisburg, Germany, 2005.
7. Group talk at the University of Essen-Duisburg, Germany, 2006.
8. Group talks at the Max Planck Institute-PKS, Dresden, Germany, 2007.
9. Weierstrasse Institute, Berlin, Germany, 2007.
10. Weierstrasse Institute, Berlin, Germany, 2008.
11. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkatta, 2008.
12. Institute of Physical Sciences, Armenian Academy of Sciences, 27th August 2009.
13. Weierstrasse Institute, Berlin, Germany, 2009.
14. International conference on cold atoms and ions, Kolkata, 2010.
15. School of Physics, Bharathidasan University,Tiruchipalli, India, 2010.
16. Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, India, 2010.
17. Workshop on strongly correlated systems, Harish Chandra Research Institute, India, 2010.
Research Papers in Journals:
1. Tarun Kumar, A Bhattacherjee and Man Mohan, Two-photon nonlinear spectroscopy of periodically trapped ultracold atoms in a cavity, To appear in International Journal of Modern Physics B (2010).
2. A. Bhattacherjee and S. Dudeja, Theoretical Study of Oligophenyl based double barrier molecular diode, To appear in Journal of Computational Methods in Science and Engineering (2011).
3. Tarun Kumar, A. Bhattacherjee, Priyanka Verma and ManMohan, Entangling two Bose Einstein condensates in a double cavity system, Journal of Physics B , 44, 065302, (2011).
4. A. Bhattacherjee , Pradeep Jha, Tarun Kumar and ManMohan, Luttinger liquid in superlattice structures: atomic gas, quantum dot and classical Ising chain, Physica Scripta, 83, 015016 (2011).
5. A. Bhattacherjee, Quantum noise reduction using a cavity with a Bose Einstein condensate, Journal of Physics B At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 205301,(2010).
6. A. Bhattacherjee, Tarun Kumar and Man Mohan, Probing superfluidity of periodically trapped ultracold atoms in a cavity by transmission spectroscopy, Central European Journal of Physics, 8, 850,(2010).
7. Tarun Kumar, A Bhattacherjee and Man Mohan, Dynamics of a movable micro mirror in a nonlinear optical cavity, Physical Review A, 81, 013835,(2010).
8. M.C. Chung and A. Bhattacherjee, Damping in 2D and 3D dilute Bose gases, New Journal of Physics, 11, 123012,(2009).
9. Bhattacherjee. A, Cavity quantum optomechanics of ultracold atoms in optical lattice: Normal mode splitting, Physical Review A, 80, 043607,(2009).
10. Bhattacherjee A, The quantum acousto-optic effect in Bose-Einstein condensate, Optics Communication, 282, 3641,(2009).
11. Bhattacherjee A, Faraday instability in a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, Physica Scripta , 78, 045009,(2008).
12. Chung. M. C, Bhattacherjee A, Dynamical Structure Factor and Spin-Density Separation for a Weakly-Interacting Two-Component Bose Gas, Physical Review Letters, 101, 070402,(2008).
13. Bhattacherjee. A and Pietrzyk. M, Transport behaviour of a Bose Einstein condensate in a bichromatic optical lattice, Central European Journal of Physics, 6, 26,(2008).
14. Bhattacherjee. A, Superfluid Dynamics of a Bose-Einstein Condensate in an Optical Lattice confined in a cavity,Optics Communication, 281, 3004,(2008).
15. Bhattacherje. A, Coherence properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical superlattice, European Physical Journal D , 46, 499 – 506,(2008).
16. Bhattacherjee. A, Bogoliubov spectrum of a cigar shaped Fermi superfluid in an optical lattice at the BEC-BCS crossover. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40,4453,(2007).
17. Bhattacherjee, A, Superfluid dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional optical superlattice, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 40,143,( 2007).
18. Bhattacherjee, A, Josephson dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an accelerated double well potential, International Journal of Modern Physics B, 21,1067,(2007).
19. Bhattacherjee, A, Quantum theory of vortex lattice state in a rotating Bose-Einstein condensate, Acta Physics Slovaca, 56, 1 (2006).
20. Ranjan, V, Bhattacherjee, A, Man Mohan, Stability of Bloch Oscillations in two coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, International journal of Modern Physics B, 19, 4419 (2005).
21. Bhattacherjee , A , Ranjan, V., Man Mohan (2005): Quantum theory of a Bose Einstein condensate out of equilibrium. Optics Communication, 249, 587-593.
22. Bhattacherjee, A., Courtade, E. and Arimondo, E. (2004): Stability of a bosonic current in a quasi-condensate confined in an optical toroidal trap. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 37, 4397-4404.
23. Bhattacherjee, A. (2004): Tkachenko modes and quantum melting of Josephson junction type of vortex array in rotating Bose Einstein condensate. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics , 37, 2699- 2705.
24. Bhattacherjee A, Morsch, O. and Arimondo, E (2004):Stability of a small amplitude normal mode of a Bose-Einstein condensate with a singly quantized vortex confined in an optical lattice. Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics , 37, 2355-2361.
25. Bhattacherjee, A., Ranjan, V. and ManMohan (2003): Dynamics of spin squeezing in coupled two mode Bose-Einstein condensates. International Journal of Modern Physics B , 17, 2579.
26. Bhattacherjee, A. and ManMohan (2003): Wave-packet dynamics and Rabi Oscillations in two-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates confined in an optical lattice. Modern Physics Letters B 17, 321.
27. Bhattacherjee, A. and ManMohan (2002): Crossover from Rabi to Josephson dynamics in two-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates as a phase transition. Modern Physics Letters B, 16, 1021- 1026,
28. Bhattacherjee, A. and ManMohan (2002): Imaging population distribution between two coupled atomic Bose-Einstein condensates by using short laser pulses. Physical Review A. 66, 053617- 053622.
29. Bhattacherjee, A. (2002): Controlled manipulation of population oscillations and quantum statistics of Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical lattice. Optics Communication , 204, 203-209.
30. Bhattacherjee, A. (2002): Quantum manipulation of polaritonic band gaps of two coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates confined in an optical lattice. Journal of Optics B: Quantum and semi classical optics 4, 251- 255.
31. Bhattacherjee, A. (2002): Mobile charge density wave model for third order nonlinearity of linear polyenes. Indian Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, 40, 355-360.
32. Bhattacherjee, A. (2001): Quantum Jump induced non-classical photon statistics in fluorescence light emitted by cold Helium atoms in an optical lattice: Coherent control by polarization gradient and axial magnetic field.Journal of Optics B, 3,382-387.
33. Bhattacherjee, A. (2001): Coherent control of quantum jumps in an optical lattice. Acta Physica Slovaca 51, 347-357.
34. Bhattacherjee, A. (2001): Electron shelving induced squeezing produced in the fluorescence light emitted by cold Helium atoms in an optical lattice. Modern Physics Letters B 15, 847-855.
35. Bhattacherjee, A. (2001): Laser cooling of two level atom via two photon transition. Indian journal of Physics B , 75B, 533-537.
36. Bhattacherjee, A. (2001): Polarization gradient induced electron shelving in cold helium atoms in an optical lattice: effect of axial magnetic field. Optics Communication 191, 83-89.
37. Bhattacherjee, A. (1998): Influence of second order correction to Rayleigh scattering on squared field amplitude squeezing and photon antibunching in the two level thermal JCM. Phys. Lett.A.244, 527-537.
38. Bhattacherjee, A. (1998): Estimation of resonant third-order hyper polarizability of Beta-Carotene from Raman and Absorption spectroscopy”, Bulgarian journal of physics, 25, 166-170.
39. Bhattacherjee, A. (1997): Influence of nonlinearity in one photon process on the relationship between field and dipole squeezing in the two level thermal JCM. Phy. Rev. A , 56, 796-802.
40. Bhattacherjee, A., Chaudhury, K, Bajaj M M. (1995): The dielectric properties of skin tissues and their change during thermal burn injuries between 1 and 100 MHz. Physica Medica,XI, 27- 32.
41. Bhattacherjee, A, Chaudhury, K, Bajaj M M. and Jain, D C. (1994): Variation of water lattice in Duchenne muscular dystrophy due to creatine at a 3 MHz ultrasonic frequency. Indian Journal of pure and applied ultrasonics. 16, 82- 86.
42. Chaudhury, K, Bhattacherjee, A, Bajaj, M M. and Jain, D C. (1994): An analysis of 5-(phydroxyphenyl)-5-(phenylhydantoin) induced perturbations in the 200-400nm region. Revue Roumaine de Chimie, 39, 1091-1098.
43. Chaudhury, K, Bhattacherjee, A, Bajaj, M M. and Jain, D C. (1994):Binding of 5,5-diphenylhydantoin with erythrocyte membrane: Local lateral order parameter and strong interaction with phospholipids head groups. Australasian Journal of Physical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine 17, 28-33.
44. Bhattacherjee, A. Chaudhury, K. Bajaj, M M. and Jain, D C. (1992): Effect of 5,5-diphenylhydantoin on carotenoid pigments in human serum using laser Raman spectroscopic technique. Current Science 63, 328-329.
Research Articles in Books:
1. Bhattacherjee, A. B and Chela-Flores, J. (2004). Search for bacterial waste as a possible signature of life on Europa, in Seckbach, J., Chela-Flores, J., Owen, T. and Raulin, F., (eds.), in "Life in the Universe", Cellular Origin and Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology, 7. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 257-260.
2. Suman Dudeja, Aranya B Bhattacherjee and Julian Chela-Flores, Microbial Mats and Ancient Microorganisms in Stratified Systems Series: Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology, Vol. 14, Seckbach, Joseph; Oren, Aharon (Eds.), Springer, 2010.
3. Aranya B Bhattacherjee, Tarun Kumar and ManMohan, Luttinger liquid in two-colour optical lattice, in Laser and Bose Einstein Condensation Physics, Narosa, New Delhi, 2010.”
4. Aranya B Bhattacherjee and Monika Pietzyk, Matter wave dark solitons in optical superlattices, in Bose Einstein Condensates: Theory, Characteristics.., Editor: Paige E. Matthews, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2010.
5. Tarun Kumar, A. Bhattacherjee and Man Mohan, Strongly correlated quantum dynamics of multimode light coupled to a two-level atom in a cavity, Modern Optics and Photonics, Editors: G. Gurzadyan, G. Yu. Kryuchkyan and A V Papoyan, World Scientific, 2010.
Man Mohan, Anil Kumar, Bhattacherjee, A. B, Razdan, A. K, Laser and Bose Einstein Condensation Physics, Narosa, New Delhi, 2010.
Articles presented in conferences:
1. Bhattacherjee, A. (2004): Dual non-degenerate parametric atomic amplifier, International workshop on theory of quantum gases and quantum coherence”, Levico, Italy (2003).
2. Bhattacherjee, A. (2002): Coherent control of band gaps in cold atoms, International conference on current developments in atomic, molecular and chemical physics, New Delhi, India, 2002.
3. Bhattacherjee, A. (1999): Quantum noise reduction by acousto-optic effect, International conference on Ultrasonic, National Physical Laboratory, India, 1999.
4. Bhattacherjee, A. Chaudhury, K. Bajaj, M M. and Jain, D C.(1994): Scattering of Davydov soliton from a mass impurity in erythrocyte membrane, Conference on some aspects of modern physics, Dibrugarh University, India, 1994.
5. Bhattacherjee, A. Chaudhury, K. Bajaj, M M. and Jain, D C.(1993): Resonance Raman studies on the excited state structure and dynamics of carotenoid-protein type of donor-acceptor device. International symposium on spectroscopy and astrophysics, Allahabad University, India, 1993.
1. Bhattacherjee. A and Dudeja. S, Manipulating the conduction process of a molecular Resonant tunneling Diode, ICTP PREPRINT IC2006/044.
2. Bhattacherjee. A and Dudeja. S, Transmembrane electric field dependent Poole-Frenkle effect in mitochondrial membrane, ICTP PREPRINT IC/98/68.
My contributions to the field of quantum optics, cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensation includes introducing for the first time non-linear one-photon Jaynes-Cummings model, electron shelving induced generation of non-classical light in optical lattices, crossover from Rabi to Josephson dynamics in coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) as a phase transition process, imaging of coupled BEC using femtosecond light pulses. Predicting the polaritonic band structure of coupled BEC in optical lattice.
I was first to propose the possibility of Bosonic current in optical toroidal trap. Mine was one of the first works, which investigated the dynamics of vortex in an optical lattice. Recently using path integral formalism, I showed that the Abrikosov-Tkachenko vortex lattice in a BEC may be equivalently understood as an array of Josephson junctions and was able to accurately reproduce experimental results for the Tkachenko modes using this model. In another recent work I showed the existence of plastic state in vortex lattice of a fast rotating BEC.
For the first time I gave a quantum theory of Bose-Einstein condensate out of equilibrium. I was able to calculate for the first time the effective mass and the Bogoliubov spectrum in an optical superlattice. I showed that how the two-colour optical lattice is a new tool to manipulate superfluid and coherence properties of the BEC and these results have important implications in atom interferometry and quantum computation. I also showed how the Bloch oscillations and dipole oscillations were influenced by the optical superlattice in accordance with experiments.
In ultracold Fermi gases, it is possible to tune the interaction strength and tune the system between two limits, Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) type superfluid ( involving atom pairs in momentum space) and Bose Einstein condensate (involving atom pairs in real space). The cross-over between BEC-BCS is of extreme importance and experimentally one looks for signatures which identify such crossover. In optical lattices such crossover becomes even more interesting. I have provided recently a full three dimensional theory of this crossover and predicted possible crossover signatures in the various Bogoliubov spectrum which will act as experimental guide.
When optical lattices with BEC are enclosed in high quality-factor optical cavities (this system is known as quantum optical lattice), the quantum properties of the light field become important. A strong coupling between the BEC and the cavity modes is developed and this leads to a band structure of the photons!!. The cavity properties and the pump field emerge as a new handle to control the superfluid properties of the BEC. This study which I did emerges as a new system for improved atom-interferometry and quantum computation.
In a recent paper in “Physical Review Letters” with my collaborator, I showed the existence of spin-charge separation in Bose gas in 2D as well as 3D systems.
Recently, I have described the quantum analogue of the acousto-optic effect in a Bose-Einstein condensate. In this work I have described a new type of effect i.e. interplay between the Faraday pattern formation in BEC on one hand, and the acousto-optic effect in BEC due to external optical radiation on the other hand. The interplay leads to novel and useful phenomena. Together with my student, we showed that a nano-mirror coupled to a kerr-medium in an optical cavity is a new quantum device. I have given the first detailed theory of cavity optomechanics of a Bose-Einstein condensate and showed that the BEC in a cavity can be used to reduce the quantum fluctuations of the output light.
Current On-going Projects:
1. Cavity quantum opto-mechanics with a BEC. How quantum fluctuations of a BEC coupled with the quantum fluctuations of the cavity field and the quantum fluctuations of the cavity mirror produce new complex dynamics.
2. Cooling a mirror and quantum measurement of a cantilever using nonlinear two-photon interaction.
3. Cooling a mirror coupled to another mirror.
4. Quantum noise reduction of output light from a cavity using the quantum fluctuations of a Bose Einstein condensate.
5. Quantum measurements using a Bose Einstein condensate in a cavity.
6. One dimensional Luttinger liquid model of a Bose gas.
7. Theoretical analysis of intramolecular barriers in Polyphenyl-based molecular devices.
Scientific Activities Attended:
1. International conference on Nonlinear analysis, Gulbarga University, India (1992).
2. International symposium on Spectroscopy and Astrophysics, Allahabad University, India (1993).
3. National symposium on "Some aspects of modern physics, University of Dibrugarh, India (1994).
4. Seventh College on Biophysics, The Abdus Salam I.C.T.P, Italy (1996).
5. Spring school on statistical mechanics and dynamics of soft condensed matter, I.C.T.P, Italy (1998).
6. Adriatico research conference on organic semiconductors, I.C.T.P, Italy (1998).
7. Niels Bohr UNESCO symposium, Paris, France (1998).
8. International conference on ultrasonics, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (1999).
9. International workshop on physics with trapped atoms and ions, Indian Institute of Science , Bangalore, India (2000).
10. ICTP/UCSB/TWAS workshop on Frontiers in material science, I.C.T.P, Italy (2001).
11. College on "Numerical methods in electronic structure calculations I.C.T.P, Italy (2001).
12. Second Stig Lundqvit conference on the advancing frontiers of condensed matter physics, I.C.T.P, Italy (2001).
13. Summer school on low-dimensional quantum systems, ICTP, Italy (2001).
14. ICTP-INFM workshop on entanglement at the nano-scale, Italy (2002).
15. International conference on Current developments in atomic, molecular and chemical physics, New Delhi, India (2002).
16. Workshop on Nonlinear Dynamics in Classical and Quantum Mechanics, Sammomme, Italy, 2003.
17. International workshop on Theory of quantum gases and quantum coherence, Levico, Italy (2003).
18. Seventh Trieste Conference on Chemical Evolution, Trieste, Italy, 2003.
19. International conference on Current developments in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics with Applications, New Delhi, India (2006).
20.Conference on Quantum Phenomena in Confined Dimensions, June, ICTP, Trieste, Italy (2007).
21. Chaos and collectivity in many body systems, March 5-8, MPIPKS, Dresden, Germany (2008).
22. Workshop on quanum phenomena and information, May 5-16, ICTP, (2008).