University of Delhi
Courses Teaching at M. Tech. (Chemical Synthesis and Process Technologies) and M.Sc. (Chemistry), Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi.
UV Spectroscopy: Basic principles, Absorption laws, designation of absorption bands, transition probability, allowed and forbidden transitions, measurement of the spectrum, selection rules and selectivity, chromophores and auxochromes, Woodward-Fieser rules, solvent effects, UV spectra of different families of organic compounds and metal complexes.
Infra Red Spectroscopy: Introduction, Principles of IR spectroscopy, basic theory, Number of fundamental vibrations, calculation of vibrational frequencies, Finger print region, vibrational energy of a diatomic molecule, vibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules, rotational structure in vibrational bands, interpretation and applications of IR spectroscopy, FT-IR.
Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, NMR active nuclei (1H, 13C, 19F, 31P), Spinning nucleus, effects of external magnetic field, precessional motion and frequency, Energy transitions, Chemical and magnetic equivalent and non-equivalent protons, Chemical shift and its measurement. Factors influencing chemical shift, anisotropy, integration of protons, spin-spin coupling, splitting theory, magnitude of coupling constant, Simple and complex spin-spin coupling, factors affecting the coupling constant, First and non-first order spectra. Simplification of complex spectra (solvent effect, field effect, and double resonance, shift reagents).
Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonace Spectroscopy, Resolution and multiplicity of 13C NMR, 1H-decoupling, noise decoupling, broad band decoupling, NOE signal enhancement, off-resonance, proton decoupling, DEPT, INEPT experiments. Applications of 1H and 13C NMR in structure elucidation of complex organic molecules.
Two Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (2D): Basic introduction of 2D NMR, The spin-echo experiment, multi-pulse NMR, Homonuclear correlation experiments (COSY), Heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR, HMQC, etc.), NOE experiments (NOESY, HOESY, ROESY), and INADEQUATE, ESXY.
ESR: Derivative curves, hyperfine splitting, g-values, ESR spectra of simple molecules.
Mass Spectrometry: Theory, instrumentation, Ionization methods (EI, CI and FAB), positive or negative ionization, molecular and fragment ions, Double focusing mass spectrometers, Mass spectrum, base peak, molecular ion peak, metastable peak, isotopic mass peaks, Recognition of M+ peak, singly, doubly and multiply charged ions, General fragmentation rules and fragmentation of different classes of compounds, Factors governing general fragmentation processes, McLafferty Rearrangement and Ortho effect, Nitrogen rule, Rule 13. Recent mass spectrometry techniques FTMS, FAB, ESI, MALDI, API, etc.
Symmetry elements and operations, point group classification and symmetry numbers. Stereoisomerism, optical isomerism (diasteromers and enantiomers) and racemic modification (kinetic, chemical and enzymatic resolution), dl, DL, RS, EZ nomenclature, Enantiomeric and diasterio-isomeric excess, Torsional isomerism, allotropisomers (axial and planar chirality, e.g. biphenyls, spiranes, allenes), Relative and absolute configuration, Correlation of configuration with examples.
Prostereoisomerism, Topicity of ligands and faces and their nomenclature, Stereogenicity, chirogenicity and pseudogenecity.
Cyclostereoisomerism: Conformation and configuration, conformational analysis, conformation and reactivity, stereochemistry of ring systems. Conformation and stability of cyclohexanes (substituted cyclohexanes), decalins.
Asymmetric synthesis and asymmetric induction. Crams and Prelogs rules, Dynamic stereochemistry. Conformation and reactivity, Curtin-Hammett Principle. Role of ORD and CD in the determination of configuration.
Carbocations: Classical and non-classical carbocations, neighbouring group participation, ion-pairs, molecular rearrangements in acyclic, monocyclic, bicyclic systems, stability and reactivity of bridge-head carbocations.
Linear free energy relationships and their applications.
Carbanions: Generation, structure and stability, ambident ions and their general reactions, HSAB principle and its applications.
Radicals: Generation, structure, stability and reactions, cage effects, and their general reactions.
Carbenes: Formation and structure, reactions involving carbenes and carbenoids.
Nitrenes: Generation, structure and stability & reactions of nitrenes
Nucleophilic aromatic substitution: Benzyne, SNAr, and SRN1 mechanisms.
1. Measurement of optical rotation values, calculation of ee/de ratios and determination of specific rotation
2. Chemical resolution of racemic mixtures of acids with chiral amines or amines with chiral acids
3. Analytical and preparative TLCs (mixtures containing three or more compounds, natural extracts and use of different developing agents)
4. Preparations involving stereochemical aspects (geometrical isomers and stereoisomers) and different reactive intermediates
5. Applications of UV and CD spectroscopy